TRANSLATION always represents an original text (or “Source Text”, or “text of Departure”); in this, it involves a certain degree of equivalence, although the concept of strict equivalence between the languages is now exceeded in Translation Studies. The concept of translation refitting since long on dichotomies such as “fidelity” versus “freedom”, “fidelity to the letter” versus “fidelity to the Spirit”, etc.

The translation takes account of a number of parameters (context, grammar, etc.), in order to make it understandable to people with no knowledge of the source language and not having the same culture or the same knowledge2. Translate involves controlling the source 텐가 language but also the target language (or recipient), which is usually the mother tongue. The good translator has more than language skills: it must be able to analyze the text, and himself to possess the qualities of writing. To translate the texts scientific and technical, it must also possess a strong technical knowledge and master the jargon in the two languages.

The translation is still essentially human, but of computer tools of automatic translation appear (computer-assisted translation).

The discipline that is interested in the translation is called the translation process.

Role of the translation and languages in the circulation of ideas and information

In space and in time, the intensity of the intercultural communication and exchanges exogamous depends in large part on the quantity and quality of information translated from one language to the other, but history has shown that the movement and the “notoriety” of ideas are not to be confused quantitatively with the more widely spoken languages. In particular, the number of speakers of a language spoken is not a good predictor of the ability of a message created in this language (or circulating in this language) to then be translated and to circulate in the world; according to the linguist David Crystal,” which explains that a language becomes a global language has little to do with the number of people who speak, but much more with “who” these speakers speak “. The network of bilingual speakers and translators6 therefore has a great importance from this point of view.